A major Government-led reform of New Zealand's drinking water, wastewater and stormwater services (the 'three waters') is under way. We're working through understanding what it could mean for our community.

Challenges for councils

At the moment, New Zealand's drinking water, wastewater and stormwater (the 'three waters') services are mostly provided by 67 local councils, including ours.

However, councils around the country are facing a number of challenges, including:

  • large debt and affordability issues
  • meeting safety standards and environmental expectations
  • building resilience to natural hazards and climate change into their three waters networks
  • supporting the growth of their communities.

The Water Industry Commission for Scotland estimates that $120 to $185 billion needs to be invested in New Zealand's water services over the next 30 years, while the combined forecast spend in councils’ latest long-term budgets is about $81 billion.

There are also increasing concerns about the quality of New Zealand's drinking water and the safety of the infrastructure that delivers it.

New water regulator - Taumata Arowai 

The Government's inquiry into the 2016 drinking-water contamination outbreak in Havelock North, and the following Three Waters Review, has led to the introduction of a new national regulator for water services called Taumata Arowai(external link).

Taumata Arowai has responsibility for overseeing and enforcing new drinking-water regulations and providing oversight of the environmental impacts of wastewater and stormwater.

The Taumata Arowai – Water Services Regulator Act, passed in July 2020, established Taumata Arowai as a Crown entity. 

In November 2021, Taumata Arowai assumed its role and powers as the new independent water services regulator for New Zealand under the new Water Services Act 2021, replacing the previous responsibilities of the Ministry of Health.


The Water Services Act 2021 was passed into law in September 2021. The Act contains all of the details of the new drinking-water regulations, the requirements for the protection of freshwater supplies, and Taumata Arowai’s wastewater and stormwater functions.

The Water Services Entities Bill was introduced to the House on 2 June 2022. The public was invited to make submissions on the Bill between June and July. The Finance and Expenditure Select Committee released a report on the Bill ahead of its second reading on 16 November 2022. Find out more about the Bill on the New Zealand Parliament website(external link)

Another bill is expected to be introduced in late 2022. This Bill will transfer assets and liabilities from local authorities to water services entities, and integrate the entities into other regulatory systems, such as the resource management and economic regulatory regimes.

Water services entities

The Government intends to establish four publicly owned water services entities across New Zealand.

Christchurch is included in the South Island entity ('Entity D') that comprises the Ngāi Tahu takiwā, the tribal boundary that covers most of the South Island.

This entity will provide drinking water, wastewater and stormwater services to a population of more than 850,000 people.

The proposed structure will see the 20 councils in most of the South Island represented by six elected members and six iwi representatives in a Regional Representative Group.

The Regional Representative Group will appoint an independent selection panel, which in turn would appoint the water entity’s board members.

The board members will independently govern the entity.

Councils will be the owners of the entities, on behalf of their communities. Ownership will be enabled through shares assigned to each council per 50,000 people in its district, with at least one share for

Read the Government's frequently asked questions about the entities(external link).

Support package

On 15 July 2021, the Government announced that a total of $2.5 billion will be split between the councils that continue with the Three Waters Reform Programme.

The Crown contributes $1 billion of this, and the new water entities $1.5 billion.

Christchurch will get $122.4 million, and this money can go towards projects that meet specific criteria related to improving resilience to climate change, housing development, and community wellbeing.

Some of this $122.4 million will be made available from 1 July 2022, with the majority available from 1 July 2024, when the new water services entities are expected to be set up. We’re working on a plan on how best to spend these funds.

Additionally, Christchurch will also get a share of $50 million to be split between Auckland and Wellington.

This $50 million is aimed at addressing the financial impact on councils as a result of the reform programme and the transfer of three waters assets, liabilities and revenues to the new entities. The exact amount Christchurch will get is yet to be determined.

Read the Government's frequently asked questions about the support package [PDF, 745KB](external link).

The Government's main objective of the Three Waters Reform Programme is to provide a more efficient and consistent way of delivering three waters services across the country.

It is believed that by councils and communities joining together to provide these services at a larger scale, greater efficiencies and capabilities can be achieved.

Other specific objectives of the Three Waters Reform Programme can be summarised as follows:

Safe and reliable drinking water

For all New Zealanders and visitors. In 2016, thousands of people were infected in Havelock North by drinking water from contaminated bores. Four people died and others were left permanently disabled.

Affordable water services in the future

In some parts of the country, it is becoming increasingly unaffordable for councils, especially smaller councils with fewer ratepayers, to provide safe and reliable three waters services.

Climate change readiness

Increasing flooding events and sea-level rise will put pressure on three waters infrastructure and services. The Government is concerned about the ability of councils to meet this challenge without reform.

Same level of service for everyone

With 67 councils providing three waters services across the country, some communities receive a different level of service to others. The reform aims to provide a more consistent level of service for New Zealanders.

Proper investment in infrastructure

Through stage one of the reform process, the Government concluded there is ongoing underinvestment in three waters infrastructure in parts of the country. There may be large costs over the next 30 years as infrastructure is brought up to standard. These costs may be too much for some councils to carry alone.

All water services meeting new requirements

With a new national water regulator, Taumata Arowai, and a new economic regulator being set up, the Government is concerned councils may not be able to meet future requirements without reform.

Memorandum of understanding

In July 2020, the Government announced a financial package to maintain and improve three waters infrastructure and to support a three-stage programme of reform.

Like many councils in New Zealand, we signed a memorandum of understanding (MoU) with the Government to receive the financial package(external link) and to explore possible new ways of delivering our three waters services in the future. The MoU did not commit us to change the way we delivered our water services.

We have used $40 million of funding we received through the financial package planned to fund a number of projects around the city, including some large water-mains projects.

Request for information

In January 2021, we responded to a national Request for Information from the Government. This allowed councils across the country to provide detailed information about their three waters networks to inform the Government's analysis and reform proposal.

Working group

In November 2021, Local Government Minister Nanaia Mahuta announced the establishment of a working group made up of local government and iwi representatives to recommend strengthened governance and accountability arrangements for the Three Waters Reform Programme. Christchurch Mayor Lianne Dalziel was appointed to the working group.

The group reported back to the Government(external link) on 9 March 2022 with 47 recommendations. 

On 29 April 2022 the Government announced that they accepted the majority of the workings group’s recommendations, including adopting the shareholding structure recommended by the group. 

Partnership with councils opposing mandated reform

The Council resolved on 9 December 2021 to sign a memorandum of understanding (MoU) to work cooperatively with at least 21 other co-signing councils to convince the Government to reconsider its plans to reform water services across New Zealand.

Deputy Mayor Andrew Turner will represent the Council on the partnership’s oversight group.

As part of the eight-week engagement period between the Government and councils during August and September 2021, we provided detailed feedback on the Three Waters Reform Programme.

Read our full feedback response. [PDF, 1.5 MB]

In our feedback to the Government, we said:

  • The Government had presented a strong case for increased investment in the delivery of drinking water and wastewater services (two waters) across New Zealand.
  • There had been little visibility of, and no ability to provide feed back on, the short-list options to achieve such a change; the Government had only moved forward with its preferred option.
  • We believed there were alternative options that should be given the same level of consideration and an opportunity provided for local authorities to evaluate these alongside the Government’s preferred entities approach.
  • We recommended a pause and a reset in the Three Waters Reform Programme, in order to properly explore other options to achieve the Government's objectives.

New legislation

The Water Services Entities Bill was introduced to the House on 2 June 2022. The public can make submissions on the Bill until 11.59pm on Friday 22 July.  Find out more about the Bill on the New Zealand Parliament website(external link)

Working groups

The Government is planning to set up two more working groups: one to focus on the interface between the reform and the resource management system, and another to focus on transitioning rural community water supplies.

Council wants re-think of Water Services Entities Bill(external link) 7 July 2022

Mayor urges people to submit on Water Services Entities Bill(external link) 23 June 2022

More work still needed on three waters reforms says Mayor(external link) 29 Apr 2022

Christchurch joins councils opposing three waters reform(external link) 9 Dec 2021

Council meets with new water services regulator(external link) 3 Dec 2021

Government's three waters decision 'extremely disappointing'(external link) 27 Oct 2021

Mayor sends Minister letter on three waters delivery model(external link) 4 Oct 2021

Council rejects proposed approach to water reforms(external link) 27 Sep 2021

Three waters reform model flawed, says Mayor(external link) 22 Sep 2021

Water survey results are in(external link) 13 Sep 2021

Survey to gauge people's views on water(external link) 24 Aug 2021

Canterbury mayors ask for pause in three waters reform(external link) 23 Aug 2021

Presentation to the Three Waters, Infrastructure and Environment Committee(external link) 11 Aug 2021

Mayor Lianne Dalziel: Too early to make call on water reforms (external link)30 Jun 2021

Water networks key focus for investment(external link) 23 Jun 2021

Mayor comments on Government's water reform reports(external link) 2 Jun 2021

Chlorine-free water supply still a top priority(external link) 26 May 2021

Funding boost for water infrastructure(external link) 7 Dec 2020

Council signs up to first stage of water reforms(external link) 25 Aug 2020

Decision looms on stage one water reforms(external link) 20 Aug 2020

Water reform discussions under way(external link) 6 Aug 2020

Timeline of reform


Campylobacter outbreak in Havelock North. Thousands of people were infected by drinking water from contaminated bores. Four people died and others were left permanently disabled.


Government inquiry into the Havelock North drinking-water contamination.


Government's Three Waters Review.

Dec 2019 – Mar 2021

Taumata Arowai set up as a Crown Entity, to regulate drinking water from late 2021.

May 2020

Three Waters Steering Committee set up to oversee the Three Waters Reform Programme.

July 2020

Water Services Bill introduced, containing details of a new regulatory system.

July 2020

Government financial package announced to improve water services delivery and to explore water reform in partnership with councils as part of a memorandum of understanding (MoU).

Aug 2020

Christchurch City Council signs the MoU with the Government to receive the financial package and to explore water reform options.

Apr – Jun 2021

Government to make more detailed decisions about the Three Waters Reform proposal.

Jun – Jul 2021

Government-led nationwide education campaign to help New Zealanders understand the Three Waters Reform Programme.

Aug – Sep 2021

Eight-week engagement period with the Government, to better understand the implications of reform for councils and communities.

Sep 2021

The Water Services Bill is passed into law, becoming the Water Services Act 2021. The Act contains all of the details of the new drinking-water regulations, the requirements for the protection of freshwater supplies, and Taumata Arowai’s wastewater and stormwater functions.

Oct 2021

The Government announced it will introduce legislation to move ahead with setting up four independent entities to control drinking water, wastewater and stormwater services in New Zealand, as outlined in its proposal earlier in the year.

The decision means councils and communities will no longer have a choice about whether to be a part of the new entities; it will be mandated by the Government.

Nov 2021

Taumata Arowai takes over from the Ministry of Health as New Zealand's drinking-water regulator.


Preparation for forming the new water services entities.

June 2022

The Water Services Entities Bill was introduced to the House. 


New entities expected to start providing water services.